Netter's atlas of human embryology

scrisa de Larry R. Cochard

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Editura: ICON Learning Systems
Autor (i): Larry R. Cochard
ISBN: 192900719-1
Anul aparitiei: 2002
Descriere: With more than 300 medical illustrations plus schematics, tables, and concise text, this is the only atlas with comprehensive coverage of the major processes, events, and concepts related to normal and abnormal embryonic development. Emphasizing the morphological patterns in the embryo and fetus, the development of the embryo is placed in a context that makes it easier to understand the structure and function of the adult body and the embryonic basis of congenital birth defects. Includes an introduction to histological principles, the classification of congenital defects, and basic cellular, molecular, and genetic concepts such as induction, apoptosis, growth factors, and genetic patterning and determination.


Chapter 1
An Overview of Developmental Events, Processes, and Abnormalities
1 The First and Second Weeks
2 The Embryonic Period The Early Embryonic Period
3 The Late Embryonic Period
4 The Fetal Period
5 Histological Concepts Samples of Epithelia and Connective Tissue
6 Skin and Embryonic Connective Tissue 7 Induction 8 Apoptosis 9 Segmentation and Early Pattern Formation Genetic Determination of Embryonic Axes and Segments 10 Segmentation and Segment Fates 11 Cell Adhesion and Cell Migration 12 Cell Differentiation and Cell Fates 13 Growth Factors 14 Classification of Abnormal Processes 15 Classification of Multiple Anomalies 16 Normal Versus Major Versus Minor Malformations 17 Marfan Syndrome 18 Apert and De Lange Syndromes 19 Examples of Deformations 20 Example of a Deformation Sequence 21 Drug-Induced Embryopathies 22 Terminology 23
Chapter 2
Early Embryonic Development and the Placenta
27 Adult Uterus, Ovaries, and Uterine Tubes 28 Ovary, Ova, and Follicle Development 29 The Menstrual Cycle and Pregnancy
30 The First Week: Ovulation, Fertilization and Migration Down the Uterine Tube
31 Ectopic Pregnancy
32 Tubal Pregnancy
33 Interstitial, Abdominal, and Ovarian Pregnancy 34 The Second Week: Implantation and Extraembryonic Membrane Formation 35 The Third Week: Gastrulation 36 Events Related to Gastrulation 37 The Fourth Week: Folding of the Gastrula 38 The Vertebrate Body Plan 39 Formation of the Placenta 40 The Endometrium and Fetal Membranes 41 Placental Structure Placental Structure 42 External Placental Structure; Maternal-Fetal Blood Barrier 43 Placental Variations 44 Placenta Previa 45 Summary of Ectodermal Derivatives 46 Summary of Endodermal Derivatives 47 Summary of Mesodermal Derivatives 48 Terminology 49
Chapter 3
The Nervous System 51 Formation of the Neural Plate 52 Neurulation 53 Neural Tube and Neural Crest 54 Neural Tube Defects Defects of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column 55 Defects of the Brain and Skull 56 Neuron Development 57 Development of the Cellular Sheath of Axons 58 Development of the Spinal Cord Layers 59 Development of the Spinal Cord 60 Peripheral Nervous System Development of the Peripheral Nervous System 61 Somatic Versus Splanchnic Nerves 62 Growth of the Spinal Cord and Vertebral Column 63 Embryonic Dermatomes 64 Adult Dermatomes 65 Development of the Brain Early Brain Development 66 Further Development of Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain 67 Development of Major Brain Structures 68 Growth of the Cerebral Hemispheres 69 Derivatives of the Forebrain, Midbrain, and Hindbrain 70 Cross Sections of the Midbrain and Hindbrain 71 Production of Cerebrospinal Fluid 72 Development of Motor Nuclei in the Brainstem 73 Segmentation of the Hindbrain 74 Development of the Forebrain Forebrain Wall and Ventricles 75 Relationship Between Telencephalon and Diencephalon 76 Development of the Pituitary Gland 77 Development of the Ventricles 78 Congenital Ventricular Defects 79 Terminology 80
Chapter 4
The Cardiovascular System 83 Early Vascular Systems 84 Vein Development Early Development of the Cardinal Systems 85 Transformation to the Postnatal Pattern 86 Vein Anomalies 87 Aortic Arch Arteries 88 Artery Anomalies Aortic Arch Anomalies 89 Anomalous Origins of the Pulmonary Arteries 90 Intersegmental Arteries and Coarctation of the Aorta 91 Summary of Embryonic Blood Vessel Derivatives 92 Formation of Blood Vessels 93 Formation of the Heart Tube Formation of the Left and Right Heart Tubes 94 Formation of a Single Heart Tube 95 Chambers of the Heart Tube 96 Bending of the Heart Tube 97 Partitioning the Heart Tube 98 Atrial Separation 99 Spiral (Aorticopulmonary) Septum 100 Completion of the Spiral (Aorticopulmonary) Septum 101 Ventricular Separation and Bulbus Cordis 102 Adult Derivatives of the Heart Tube Chambers 103 Fetal Circulation 104 Transition to Postnatal Circulation 105 Congenital Heart Defect Concepts 106 Ventricular Septal Defects 107 Atrial Septal Defects 108 Spiral Septum Defects 109 Patent Ductus Arteriosus 110 Terminology 111
Chapter 5
The Respiratory System 113 Early Primordia 114 Formation of the Pleural Cavities 115 The Relationship Between Lungs and Pleural Cavities 116 Visceral and Parietal Pleura 117 Development of the Diaphragm 118 Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia 119 Airway Branching The Airway at 4 to 7 Weeks 120 The Airway at 7 to 10 Weeks 121 Development of Bronchioles and Alveoli 122 Bronchial Epithelium Maturation 123 Congenital Anomalies of the Lower Airway 124 Airway Branching Anomalies 125 Bronchopulmonary Sequestration 126 Palate Formation in the Upper Airway 127 The Newborn Upper Airway 128 Terminology 129
Chapter 6
The Gastrointestinal System and Abdominal Wall 131 Early Primordia 132 Formation of the Gut Tube and Mesenteries 133 Foregut, Midgut, and Hindgut 134 Abdominal Veins 135 Foregut and Midgut Rotations 136 Meckel’s Diverticulum 137 Lesser Peritoneal Sac 138 Introduction to the Retroperitoneal Concept 139 Midgut Loop 140 Abdominal Ligaments 141 Abdominal Foregut Organ Development 142 Development of Pancreatic Acini and Islets 143 Congenital Pancreatic Anomalies 144 Development of the Hindgut 145 Congenital Anomalies Duplication, Atresia, and Situs Inversus 146 Megacolon (Hirschsprung’s Disease) 147 Summary of Gut Organization 148 Development of the Abdominal Wall 149 Umbilical Hernia 150 The Inguinal Region 151 Anterior Testis Descent 152 The Adult Inguinal Region 153 Anomalies of the Processus Vaginalis 154 Terminology 155
Chapter 7
The Urogenital System 157 Early Primordia 158 Division of the Cloaca 159 Congenital Cloacal Anomalies 160 Pronephros, Mesonephros, and Metanephros 161 Development of the Metanephros 162 Ascent and Rotation of the Metanephric Kidneys 163 Kidney Rotation and Migration Anomalies Kidney Rotation Anomalies and Renal Fusion 164 Kidney Migration Anomalies and Blood Vessel Formation 165 Hypoplasia 166 Ureteric Bud Duplication 167 Ectopic Ureters 168 Bladder Anomalies 169 Allantois/Urachus Anomalies 170 Primordia of the Genital System 171 8-Week Undifferentiated (Indifferent) Stage 172 Anterior View of the Derivatives 173 Paramesonephric Duct Anomalies 174 Homologues of the External Genital Organs 175 Hypospadias and Epispadias 176 Gonadal Differentiation 177 Testis, Epididymis, and Ductus Deferens 178 Descent of Testis 179 Ova and Follicles 180 Summary of Urogenital Primordia and Derivatives 181 Summary of Genital Primordia and Derivatives 182 Terminology 183
Chapter 8
The Musculoskeletal System 185 Myotomes, Dermatomes, and Sclerotomes 186 Muscle and Vertebral Column Segmentation 187 Mesenchymal Primordia at 5 and 6 Weeks 188 Ossification of the Vertebral Column 189 Development of the Atlas, Axis, Ribs, and Sternum 190 Bone Cells and Bone Deposition 191 Histology of Bone 192 Membrane Bone and Skull Development 193 Bone Development in Mesenchyme 194 Osteon Formation 195 Compact Bone Development and Remodeling 196 Endochondral Ossification in a Long Bone 197 Epiphyseal Growth Plate Epiphyseal Growth Plate 198 Peripheral Cartilage Function in the Epiphysis 199 Structure and Function of the Growth Plate 200 Pathophysiology of the Growth Plate 201 Ossification in the Newborn Skeleton 202 Joint Development 203 Muscular System: Primordia 204 Segmentation and Division of Myotomes 205 Epimere, Hypomere, and Muscle Groups 206 Development and Organization of Limb Buds 207 Rotation of the Limbs 208 Limb Rotation and Dermatomes 209 Embryonic Plan of the Brachial Plexus 210 Divisions of the Lumbosacral Plexus 211 Developing Skeletal Muscles 212 Terminology 213
Chapter 9
Head and Neck 215 Ectoderm, Endoderm, and Mesoderm 216 Pharyngeal (Branchial) Arches 217 Ventral and Midsagittal Views 218 Fate of the Pharyngeal Pouches 219 Midsagittal View of the Pharynx 220 Fate of the Pharyngeal Grooves 221 Pharyngeal Groove and Pouch Anomalies 222 Pharyngeal Arch Nerves 223 Sensory Innervation Territories 224 Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles Early Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles 225 Later Development of Pharyngeal Arch Muscles 226 Pharyngeal Arch Cartilages 227 Ossification of the Skull 228 Premature Suture Closure 230 Cervical Ossification 231 Torticollis 232 Cervical Plexus 233 Orbit 234 Ear Development 235 Adult Ear Organization 236 Summary of Ear Development 237 Cranial Nerve Primordia 238 Cranial Nerve Neuron Components 239 Parasympathetic Innervation and Unique Nerves 240 Development of the Face Development of the Face: 3 to 4 Weeks 241 Development of the Face: 4 to 6 Weeks 242 Development of the Face: 6 to 10 Weeks 243 Palate Formation Palate Formation 244 Interior View of Palate Formation: Roof of Oral Cavity 245 Congenital Anomalies of the Oral Cavity 246 Floor of the Oral Cavity 247 Developmental Coronal Sections 248 Tooth Structure and Development 249 Dental Eruption 250 Terminology 251 Appendix A Summary of Common Congenital Anomalies Throughout the Body and Their Embryonic Causes 253
Index 257

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